The Ileal Brake

The observation that that infusion of fat and to a lesser extent sugars and protein into the ileum could delay small bowel transit and slow gastric emptying offered a means whereby intestinal absorption might be modified, offering new ideas for controlling drug delivery and treating obesity.

  1. Read, N.W., MacFarlane, A., Kinsman, R., Bates, T., Blackhall, N.W., Farrar, G.B.J., Hall, J.C., Moss, G., Morris, A.P., O’Neill, B., Welch, I. (1984) Effect of infusion of nutrient solutions into the ileum on gastrointestinal transit and plasma levels of neurotensin and enteroglucagon in man. Gastroenterology 86: 274-280.
  2. Holgate, A.M., Read, N.W. (1985) Effect of ileal infusion of intralipid on gastrointestinal transit, ileal flow rate and carbohydrate absorption in humans, after a liquid meal. Gastroenterology 88: 1005-1011.
  3. Welch, I.McL., Davison, P.A., Worlding, J., Cooper, A.L., Lowis, C., Pratt, H.A., Wilson, C.M.Y., Read, N.W. (1988) The effect of ileal infusion of lipid emulsion on jejunal motor patterns after a nutrient and non-nutrient meal. Am. J. Physiol. 255: G800-806.
  4. Read, N.W. and Sugden, K. (1988). GI dynamics and pharmacology for the optimum design of controlled oral dosage forms. CRC Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems 4: 221-263.
  5. Read, N.W. and Brown, N. (1990) The Eighties: A decade of the ileal brake. In Gastrointestinal Transit: Pathophysiology and Pharmacology. Eds. Kamm, M.W. and Lennard-Jones, J.E., Wrightson Biomedical. Chapter 6, pp. 55-64.